In colorimetry, the Munsell color product is a color space that specifies colors based upon three color dimensions: hue, value (lightness), and chroma (color purity). It was actually created by Professor Albert H. Munsell inside the first decade of the 20th century and adopted from the USDA as the official color system for soil research in the 1930s.
Several earlier color order systems had placed colors into a three-dimensional color solid of a single form or any other, but Munsell was the first to separate hue, value, and chroma into perceptually uniform and independent dimensions, and that he was the first one to systematically illustrate the colours in three-dimensional space. Munsell’s system, especially the later renotations, is founded on rigorous measurements of human subjects’ visual responses to color, putting it on the firm experimental scientific basis. As a result basis in human visual perception, Munsell’s system has outlasted its contemporary color models, even though it has been superseded for several uses by models such as CIELAB (L*a*b*) and CIECAM02, it is actually still in wide use today.
Munsell’s color sphere, 1900. Later, munsell color chart found that if hue, value, and chroma were to be kept perceptually uniform, achievable surface colors could not be forced in to a regular shape.
Three-dimensional representation in the 1943 Munsell renotations. Notice the irregularity of the shape in comparison to Munsell’s earlier color sphere, at left.
The device is made up of three independent dimensions which is often represented cylindrically in three dimensions for an irregular color solid: hue, measured by degrees around horizontal circles; chroma, measured radially outward from your neutral (gray) vertical axis; and value, measured vertically from (black) to 10 (white). Munsell determined the spacing of colours along these dimensions by using measurements of human visual responses. In each dimension, Munsell colors are as near to perceptually uniform as he could make them, helping to make the resulting shape quite irregular. As Munsell explains:
Want to fit a chosen contour, such as the pyramid, cone, cylinder or cube, in conjunction with an absence of proper tests, has triggered many distorted statements of color relations, and yes it becomes evident, when physical measurement of pigment values and chromas is studied, that no regular contour will serve.
-?Albert H. Munsell, “A Pigment Color System and Notation”
Each horizontal circle Munsell split into five principal hues: Red, Yellow, Green, Blue, and Purple, along with 5 intermediate hues (e.g., YR) halfway between adjacent principal hues. Each of these 10 steps, with the named hue given number 5, is then broken into 10 sub-steps, in order that 100 hues are shown integer values. In practice, color charts conventionally specify 40 hues, in increments of 2.5, progressing in terms of example 10R to 2.5YR.
Two colors of equal value and chroma, on opposite sides of a hue circle, are complementary colors, and mix additively to the neutral gray the exact same value. The diagram below shows 40 evenly spaced Munsell hues, with complements vertically aligned.
Value, or lightness, varies vertically across the color solid, from black (value ) in the bottom, to white (value 10) at the very top.Neutral grays lie across the vertical axis between black and white.
Several color solids before Munsell’s plotted luminosity from black on the bottom to white on top, with a gray gradient between them, however these systems neglected to help keep perceptual lightness constant across horizontal slices. Instead, they plotted fully saturated yellow (light), and fully saturated blue and purple (dark) across the equator.
Chroma, measured radially from the middle of each slice, represents the “purity” of your color (associated with saturation), with lower chroma being less pure (more washed out, like in pastels). Note that there is not any intrinsic upper limit to chroma. Different aspects of colour space have different maximal chroma coordinates. As an illustration light yellow colors have significantly more potential chroma than light purples, as a result of nature of the eye and also the physics of color stimuli. This resulted in an array of possible chroma levels-as much as the top 30s for a few hue-value combinations (though it is difficult or impossible to help make physical objects in colors of those high chromas, and they also cannot be reproduced on current computer displays). Vivid solid colors are in all the different approximately 8.
Keep in mind that the Munsell Book of Color contains more color samples than this chart for both 5PB and 5Y (particularly bright yellows, around 5Y 8.5/14). However, they are not reproducible within the sRGB color space, which has a limited color gamut created to match those of televisions and computer displays. Note additionally that there 85dexupky no samples for values (pure black) and 10 (pure white), which can be theoretical limits not reachable in pigment, without any printed samples of value 1..
A color is fully specified by listing the three numbers for hue, value, and chroma in this order. For example, a purple of medium lightness and fairly saturated can be 5P 5/10 with 5P meaning the colour during the purple hue band, 5/ meaning medium value (lightness), and a chroma of 10 (see swatch).
The thought of using a three-dimensional color solid to represent all colors was created during the 18th and 19th centuries. Many different shapes for such a solid were proposed, including: a double triangular pyramid by Tobias Mayer in 1758, a single triangular pyramid by Johann Heinrich Lambert in 1772, a sphere by Philipp Otto Runge in 1810, a hemisphere by Michel Eugène Chevreul in 1839, a cone by Hermann von Helmholtz in 1860, a tilted cube by William Benson in 1868, plus a slanted double cone by August Kirschmann in 1895. These systems became progressively more sophisticated, with Kirschmann’s even recognizing the difference in value between bright colors of numerous hues. But all of them remained either purely theoretical or encountered practical problems in accommodating all colors. Furthermore, none was according to any rigorous scientific measurement of human vision; before Munsell, the connection between hue, value, and chroma had not been understood.
Albert Munsell, an artist and professor of art with the Massachusetts Normal Art School (now Massachusetts College of Art and Design, or MassArt), wanted to make a “rational method to describe color” that will use decimal notation instead of color names (that he felt were “foolish” and “misleading”), that he can use to show his students about color. He first started work on the machine in 1898 and published it completely form in the Color Notation in 1905.
The initial embodiment in the system (the 1905 Atlas) had some deficiencies like a physical representation of the theoretical system. They were improved significantly within the 1929 Munsell Book of Color and through an extensive combination of experiments carried out by the Optical Society of America from the 1940s resulting in the notations (sample definitions) for your modern Munsell Book of Color. Though several replacements for that Munsell system have been invented, building on Munsell’s foundational ideas-for example the Optical Society of America’s Uniform Color Scales, and the International Commission on Illumination’s CIELAB and CIECAM02 color models-the Munsell technique is still traditionally used, by, and the like, ANSI to define skin and hair colors for forensic pathology, the USGS for matching soil colors, in prosthodontics during the selection of shades for dental restorations, and breweries for matching beer colors.